Today’s world is an information-rich world and it has become a necessity for everyone to know about computers. Purpose of this article is to introduce you about some device and of computer and its fundamentals.

Following are few of the important input devices which are used in a computer:

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Joy Stick
  • Light pen
  • Track Ball
  • Scanner
  • Graphic Tablet
  • Microphone
  • Magnetic Ink Card Reader(MICR)
  • Optical Character Reader(OCR)
  • Bar Code Reader
  • Optical Mark Reader(OMR)


Following are few of the important output devices which are used in a computer.

  • Monitors
  • Graphic Plotter
  • Printer


Memory is primarily of three types

  • Cache Memory: Cache memory is a very high speed semiconductor memory which can speed up CPU.
  • Primary Memory/Main Memory: Primary memory holds only those data and instructions on which computer is currently working. It is divided into two subcategories RAM and ROM.

Secondary Memory: This type of memory is also known as external memory or non-volatile. For example : disk, CD-ROM, DVD etc.

Cache: The memory device has highest of a computer

Cluster: A group of magnetic tapes, video or terminals usually under the control of one master.

DASD: A class of storage device / devices that can access storage locations in any others.

Disk: An item of storage medium in the form of circular plate.

Hard Disk: Secondary memory, An example of optical storage device.

Hub / Switch: The central device in star topology

Modem: Modulator + Demodulator

Mother board: The main circuit board in a personal computer.

Network Infrared Card (NIC) : The device is required to set up a LAN.

Port: is a physical docking point using which an external device can be connected to the computer.

RAM: Random Access Memory 

Router: Device that forward data blocks called packets to individual addresses.

Terminal : An input and output device at which data enters or leaves a computer system.

Voice Recognition Software: Voice recognition software uses a microphone to capture voice commands, a sound analyzer to identify the spoken words, and a parser to determine the meaning of the command.