Battles and Wars around the World
বিভিন্ন গুরুত্বপূর্ণ যুদ্ধ-বিগ্রহ সম্পর্কে জেনে নিন।
Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.)—This battle was fought between the Greeks and Persians in 490 B.C. A small Greek Army defeated much larger Persian force.
Battle of Hastings (1066 A.D.)—This war was fought between England and Normans in 1066 A.D. King Harold of England was defeated and England came under the Norman control.
‘Hundred Years’ War (1338-1453)—It was fought between France and England. The war was brought to an end by the sacrifice of Joan of Arc.
War between Henry VII and Richard (1455-85)—It was a civil war fought in 1455-85 between Henry VII and Richard (The Duke of York) both claiming the British throne on Henry VI’s death. Richard was defeated in this war.
Defeat of Spanish Armada (1588)—The British fleet defeated Spanish Armada. The British supremacy over the seas was established. Also, it led to renaissance in English life and literature.
Civil War in England (1642-49)—It was fought between the Parliament and Charles I of England.
War of Spanish Succession (1702)—It was fought between England and France in 1702. The latter were defeated.
Battle of Blenheim (1704)—England and Austria defeated the French and Bavarians.
Seven Years War (1756-63)—England and Prussia defeated Austria, France, Poland and Russia. It was caused by a revolutionary change in the diplomatic pattern.
American War of Independence (1776-83)—It was fought during 1776-1783. In this war, George Washington defeated the English forces and America became independent.
Battle of the Nile (1798)—A naval fight between British and French fleet in 1798. The British fleet commanded by Nelson was victorious.
Battle of Trafalgar (1805)—The British fleet under Nelson defeated the combined line of French and Spanish fleet.
Battle of Waterloo (1815)—The British under Duke of Wellington defeated Napolean. Napolean was captured and exiled to St. Helena where he died in 1821.
Crimean War (1854-56)—It was fought during 1854-56 between Russia and the combined forces of England, France and Turkey.
American Civil War (1861-65)—This was fought during 1861-65 between the Northern and Southern States of America.
Boer War (1889-1901)—This war was fought between British and Dutch forces in 1889-1901 in South Africa.
Sino Japanese War (1894-95)—Japan defeated China and occupied Formosa and Korea.
Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)—Also known as the Battle of the sea of Japan. The Japanese fleet defeated the Russian fleet. It led to the emergence of the wave of Asian resurgence.
World War I (1914-18)—The Allied Powers (Britain, France, U.S.A., Belgium) etc. defeated Germany and her associated powers.
World War II (1939-45)—The Allies (Britain, France, U.S.A. and Russia and Benelux countries etc. defeated the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan).
Battle of El-Alamein (1942)—The Allies Victory during the Second World War and retreat of Field Marshal General Rommel’s forces.
Korean War (1950-53)—It was fought between North and South Korea from 1950 to 1953 A.D.
4th Arab-Israel War (Oct. 1973)—An indecisive war led to Geneva Peace Conference on West Asia (Dec. 1973).
China-Vietnam War (Feb. 1979)—China invaded Vietnam and overran a large chunk of Vietnamese territory. It however, proclaimed ceasefire in the following month and withdrew its forces.
Iran-Iraq War (Oct. 1980-Aug. 1988)
Falkland War (1983)—It was fought between Britain and Argentina.
U.S.-Panama War (1989)—It was fought between United States and Panama.
Gulf War (Jan. 17, 1991-Feb. 26, 1991)—It was fought between multinational forces led by the U.S.A. and Iraq.
Gulf War-2 (March 20, 2003 to April 2003)—The US led coalition forces launched a full scale attack on Iraq on March 20, 2003. It made use of the latest and the fiercest weaponry to subdue the Iraqi forces. Baghdad fell on April 9, 10 and other cities followed suit. By April 20 the coalition armies were in full control of Iraq. It marked the downfall of President Saddam Hussein. The coalition forces however, found it difficult to face the resistance of Iraqi freedom fighters and, therefore, fixed June 30, 2004, as the date for handing over sovereignty to Iraq. However, political authority was transferred by the U.S. led coalition to Interim Iraqi government on June 28, 2004, i.e. two days ahead of the scheduled date. General Elections were held in Iraq on Jan. 30, 2005 to elect an Assembly which would frame a Constitution for Iraq. The elections returned the Shias in majority. This Assembly would complete the Constitution making process by August 15, 2005. This Constitution will be ratified by the people in a referendum by October 2005. The new Government would be elected under this very Constitution. Meanwhile new government was formed in Iraq on April 28, 2005 by the first democratically elected Prime Minister Ibrahim-el-Jaafari. The Parliament also accorded its approval to it the same day.
The Draft constituion prepared under the present arrangements was put to referendum on Oct. 15, 2005. Its enforcement was subject to its ratification by the people in the referendum. The result of the referendum was announced on Oct. 25, 2005. The Iraqi people gave their overwhelming support to the new Constitution in the referendum. A new government was formed in Iraq under this Constitution with Ibrahim al-Jaafari taking over on Feb. 12, 2006 as the Prime Minister. Later, he was replaced by Nuri-al-Maliki. Jalal Talabani was re-elected as President of Iraq. The country is passing through orgies of violence and normalcy seems yet a distant dream.
Around Indian Subcontinent
Battle of Hydaspes—In 326 B.C. when Alexander, the great had to turn back from Hydaspes (Beas) when his troops refused to march into India against the Nanda Empire.
Battle of Kalinga—It was fought in 361 B.C. between Ashoka, the great and the king of Kalinga. The war resulted in considerable loss of life and brought misery and suffering to the people. Its impression on Ashoka was so great that he not only turned a Buddhist, but renounced war and violence.
1st Battle of Tarain (1191 A.D.)—Prithvi Raj defeated Mohd. Gauri.
2nd Battle of Tarain (1192 A.D.)—Mohd. Gauri defeated Prithvi Raj and paved the way for Muslim rule in India.
First Battle of Panipat (1526)—Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi. This laid the foundation of Mughal rule in India.
Second Battle of Panipat (1556)—Akbar defeated Hemu. It ended the Afgan Rule and the way was cleared for Mughal rule.
Battle of Talikota (1565)—The united alliance of Bijapur, Bidar, Ahmednagar and Golkunda under Hussain Nizam Shah defeated Ram Raja of Vijaynagar. It sealed the fate of the Hindu Kingdom of Vijaynagar.
Battle of Haldighati (1576)—Akbar defeated Rana Pratap. The latter had to take refuge in remote fortresses.
Battle of Plassey (1757)—The British under Lord Clive defeated Sirajuddaulah. It laid foundation of the British Rule in India.
Third Battle of Panipat (1761)—Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marahattas. The Marahatta power suffered an irreparable loss.
Battle of Buxer (1764)—The British under Sir Hector Munro defeated the Muslim army under three Mohammadan leaders : Mir Qasim, Shuja-ud-daulha and Shah Alam II. The battle made the British Supreme in India.
The First Sikh War (1845)—The Sikh Army crossed Sutlej in 1845 at which the East India Company declared war. British occupied Lahore and forced the Sikhs to accept humiliating terms of peace.
The Second Sikh War (1849)—A drawn battle was fought between the English and the Sikhs at Chelianwala in which the English appeared to have suffered heavy losses.
Indo-Pak War (1965)—An indecisive war between India and Pakistan. It led to ‘Taskent Pact’ between the two countries.
Indo-Pak War (1971)—Indian forces in joint command with Bangladesh Army accepted the surrender of the Pak Army in Bangladesh. War in the western sector came to an end as a result of cease-fire on Dec. 17. Bangladesh was liberated.
Kargil War (1999)—Indian forces scored grand victory over Pakistani army and Pak supported mercenaries in a conflict in the Kargil sector of Jammu & Kashmir. The operation was named ‘Operation Vijaya.’ The Indian forces cleared Kargil of all Pakistani elements.